I made these coins out of a 20 cent piece, it takes about 4 hours to make one ring. You hit the top of the coin to stretch the metal. Then you drill a hole in the centre using a small drill bit you then go up in size with your drill bits. Then you file the inner edges until your happy with the size. Then polish with fine emery and a soft polishing cloth. You can see how this is made on you tube at the following address.